04 Mar 2014
Micek MA, Dross S, Blanco AJ, Beck IA, Matunha L, Seidel K, et al. (2014). Transmission of nevirapine-resistant HIV type 1 via breast milk to infants after single-dose nevirapine in Beira, Mozambique. J Infect Dis. 210(4), 641-5. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu130
Acquisition of nevirapine (NVP)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by breast-feeding infants after receipt of single-dose NVP to prevent mother-to-child transmission is not well defined. A prospective observational study of 307 infants evaluated the rate of breast milk transmission of NVP-resistant HIV and the concentrations of mutants over time. NVP resistance was detected in 9 of 24 infants (37.5%; 95% confidence interval, 18.8%-59.4%) infected via breast milk. Eight had a pure mutant HIV population at the time infection was first detected, and majority mutant populations persisted in all 6 infants with follow-up specimens. Infection of breast-feeding infants with NVP-resistant HIV resulted in mutants persisting as the dominant virus, which may indefinitely compromise treatment with NVP-based antiretroviral regimens.